We've all heard of dogs being trained to detect explosives, cash and drugs, but a UK based charity has been working with a team at MIT to train dogs in the detection of prostate cancer. 

Teams are also looking at how robotics can be developed to replicate a dog's sniffing ability so that individuals would have the capability of detecting the disease via a smartphone app. 

If the technology develops, this could be a significant step forward in the early diagnosis of disease. The companies behind this technology would likely need to carry medical indemnity in the event of misdiagnosis and couldn't be seen to completely replace a medical professional.